Chengdu Rainpoo Technology Co., Ltd.

Chengdu Rainpoo Technology Co., Ltd.

Chengdu Rainpoo Technology Co., Ltd.

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Kifungu

Kifungu
Jinsi GSD na aina ya drone ya kubeba huathiri usahihi wa jamaa wa mfano wa 3D

Katika nakala ya mwisho Jinsi alama za kudhibiti ardhi na data ya PPK inavyoathiri usahihi wa kielelezo cha 3D, tumetaja kuwa kwa kuongezea data za GCPs na PPK, GSD na drone ya kubeba pia ina kiwango fulani cha athari kwa usahihi wa jamaa wa 3D mfano. Kwa hivyo tunafanya mtihani mwingine kuithibitisha.

Jaribio 1: athari ya GSD juu ya usahihi wa jamaa wa mfano wa 3D;

Hali 1

Drone ya kubeba

Kamera ya Oblique

GCPs

PPK

 CW10 VTOL

DG4pros

HAPANA

HAPANA

Jedwali la Matokeo 1:

Idadi ya Vitu

urefu wa kipimo (L0)

Urefu wa mfano wa 3D (L1) GSD = 2cm

Urefu wa mfano wa 3D (L2) GSD = 1.5cm

DS1, L0-L1

DS2, L0-L2

1

7.210

7.18

7.20

0.030

0.010

 

8.706

8.69

8.65

0.016

0.056

 

10.961

10.89

10.90

0.071

0.061

2

7.010

6.88

6.86

0.130

0.150

3

1.822

1.76

1.76

0.062

0.062

4

10.410

10.38

10.37

0.030

0.040

5

10.718

10.65

10.68

0.068

0.038

6

13.787

13.72

13.71

0.067

0.077

7

11.404

11.41

11.38

-0.006

0.024

 

12.147

12.13

12.12

0.017

0.027

8

7.526

7.44

7.49

0.086

0.036

 

13.797

13.83

13.77

-0.033

0.027

9

10.374

10.35

10.35

0.024

0.024

10

2.109

1.98

2.09

0.129

0.019

 

4.281

4.14

4.19

0.141

0.091

11

14.675

14.55

14.64

0.125

0.035

 

8.600

8.58

8.57

0.020

0.030

12

13.394

13.36

13.38

0.034

0.014

13

12.940

12.95

12.91

-0.010

0.030

14

7.190

7.21

7.20

-0.020

-0.010

15

13.371

13.36

13.38

0.011

-0.009

 

6.435

6.37

6.43

0.065

0.005

16

3.742

3.74

3.70

0.002

0.042

17

6.022

6.03

5.99

-0.008

0.032

18

3.937

3.91

3.94

0.027

-0.003

19

8.120

8.09

8.12

0.030

0.000

 

14.411

14.40

14.37

0.011

0.041

20

6.077

6.06

6.04

0.017

0.037

21

13.696

13.68

13.65

0.016

0.046

RMSE: DS1 = 0.0397m, DS2 = 0.0356m

Hali 2

Drone ya kubeba

Kamera ya Oblique

GCPs

PPK

CW10 VTOL

DG4pros

Ndio

Hapana

Jedwali la Matokeo 2:

Idadi ya Vitu

urefu wa kipimo (L0)

Urefu wa mfano wa 3D (L1) GSD = 2cm

Urefu wa mfano wa 3D (L2) GSD = 1.5cm

DS1, L0-L1

DS2, L0-L2

1

7.210

7.18

7.21

0.030

0

 

8.706

8.68

8.68

0.026

0.026

 

10.961

10.91

10.87

0.051

0.091

2

7.010

6.92

6.88

0.090

0.13

3

1.822

1.79

1.76

0.032

0.062

4

10.410

10.39

10.38

0.020

0.03

5

10.718

10.66

10.72

0.058

-0.002

6

13.787

13.77

13.79

0.017

-0.003

7

11.404

11.38

11.38

0.024

0.024

 

12.147

12.12

12.13

0.027

0.017

8

7.526

7.47

7.53

0.056

-0.004

 

13.797

13.83

13.78

-0.033

0.017

9

10.374

10.34

10.37

0.034

0.004

10

2.109

2.03

2.11

0.079

-0.001

 

4.281

4.18

4.28

0.101

0.001

11

14.675

14.59

14.67

0.085

0.005

 

8.600

8.57

8.58

0.030

0.02

12

13.394

13.35

13.39

0.044

0.004

13

12.940

12.92

12.9

0.020

0.04

14

7.190

7.21

7.19

-0.020

0

15

13.371

13.36

13.37

0.011

0.001

 

6.435

6.43

6.42

0.005

0.015

16

3.742

3.72

3.7

0.022

0.042

17

6.022

6.00

5.98

0.022

0.042

18

3.937

3.94

3.91

-0.003

0.027

19

8.120

8.09

8.07

0.030

0.05

 

14.411

14.41

14.38

0.001

0.031

20

6.077

6.03

6.04

0.047

0.037

21

13.696

13.65

13.65

0.046

0.046

RMSE: DS1 = 0.0328m, DS2 = 0.0259m

Hali 3

Drone ya kubeba

Kamera ya Oblique

GCPs

PPK

CW10 VTOL

DG4pros

HAPANA

NDIYO

 

Jedwali la Matokeo 3:

Idadi ya Vitu

urefu wa kipimo (L0)

Urefu wa mfano wa 3D (L1) GSD = 2cm

Urefu wa mfano wa 3D (L2) GSD = 1.5cm

DS1, L0-L1

DS2, L0-L2

1

7.210

7.20

7.20

0.01

0.01

 

8.706

8.71

8.69

0.00

0.02

 

10.961

10.87

10.88

0.09

0.08

2

7.010

6.89

6.87

0.12

0.14

3

1.822

1.79

1.75

0.03

0.07

4

10.410

10.39

10.38

0.02

0.03

5

10.718

10.67

10.69

0.05

0.03

6

13.787

13.75

13.78

0.04

0.01

7

11.404

11.39

11.38

0.01

0.02

 

12.147

12.13

12.12

0.02

0.03

8

7.526

7.51

7.49

0.02

0.04

 

13.797

13.79

13.78

0.01

0.02

9

10.374

10.35

10.34

0.02

0.03

10

2.109

2.03

2.02

0.08

0.09

 

4.281

4.15

4.21

0.13

0.07

11

14.675

14.61

14.65

0.07

0.03

 

8.600

8.60

8.57

0.00

0.03

12

13.394

13.37

13.40

0.02

-0.01

13

12.940

12.88

12.89

0.06

0.05

14

7.190

7.20

7.18

-0.01

0.01

15

13.371

13.36

13.38

0.01

-0.01

 

6.435

6.40

6.46

0.03

-0.03

16

3.742

3.75

3.75

-0.01

-0.01

17

6.022

5.97

5.97

0.05

0.05

18

3.937

3.93

3.91

0.01

0.03

19

8.120

8.10

8.08

0.02

0.04

 

14.411

14.40

14.38

0.01

0.03

20

6.077

6.04

6.05

0.04

0.03

21

13.696

13.65

13.67

0.05

0.03

RMSE: DS1 = 0.0342m, DS2 = 0.0328m

Hali 4

Drone ya kubeba

Kamera ya Oblique

GCPs

PPK

CW10 VTOL

DG4pros

NDIYO

NDIYO

Jedwali la Matokeo 4:

Idadi ya Vitu

urefu wa kipimo (L0)

Urefu wa mfano wa 3D (L1) GSD = 2cm

Urefu wa mfano wa 3D (L2) GSD = 1.5cm

DS1, L0-L1

DS2, L0-L2

1

7.21

7.21

7.21

0.00

0.00

8.706

8.68

8.7

0.03

0.01

10.961

10.90

10.89

0.06

0.07

2

7.01

6.98

6.99

0.03

0.02

3

1.822

1.80

1.78

0.02

0.04

4

10.41

10.40

10.39

0.01

0.02

5

10.718

10.70

10.69

0.02

0.03

6

13.787

13.77

13.76

0.02

0.03

7

11.404

11.39

11.39

0.01

0.01

12.147

12.13

12.12

0.02

0.03

8

7.526

7.49

7.51

0.04

0.02

13.797

13.81

13.8

-0.01

0.00

9

10.374

10.36

10.35

0.01

0.02

10

2.109

2.02

2.11

0.09

0.00

4.281

4.16

4.28

0.12

0.00

11

14.675

14.66

14.68

0.02

0.00

8.6

8.54

8.53

0.06

0.07

12

13.394

13.35

13.37

0.04

0.02

13

12.94

12.89

12.91

0.05

0.03

14

7.19

7.18

7.2

0.01

-0.01

15

13.371

13.35

13.35

0.02

0.02

6.435

6.41

6.4

0.02

0.03

16

3.742

3.72

3.71

0.02

0.03

17

6.022

5.98

5.98

0.04

0.04

18

3.937

3.89

3.89

0.05

0.05

19

8.12

8.12

8.1

0.00

0.02

14.411

14.40

14.39

0.01

0.02

20

6.077

6.03

6.03

0.05

0.05

21

13.696

13.66

13.64

0.04

0.06

RMSE: DS1 = 0.0308m, DS2 = 0.0249m

Hitimisho

Vigezo vya jaribio 1 ni:

1: Na / bila data ya PPK.

2: Na / Bila GCPs.

3: GSD tofauti: 1.5 cm au 2cm

Baada ya uchambuzi wa seti nne za data ya majaribio, tunaweza kupata hitimisho zifuatazo:

 

Wakati kamera ya oblique ni DG4Pros:

(1) Pamoja na / Bila kituo cha kudhibiti ardhi (GCP) na data ya PPK inayohusika na pembetatu ya AT, iwe ni VTOL au drone ya rotor nyingi, ikiwa GSD ni 2cm au 1.5cm, mfano wa 3D uliojengwa na kamera ya oblique DG4Pros inaweza kukidhi mahitaji ya makosa ya jamaa Ds≤10cm (Kweli ≤5cm).

(2) Wakati GSD ni ubadilishaji mmoja, usahihi wa jamaa wa modeli ya 3D na GSD = 1.5cm ni bora kuliko ile GSD = 2cm.

Jaribio la 2: athari za aina za drone za kubeba juu ya usahihi wa jamaa wa modeli ya 3D

Hali 1

Kamera ya Oblique

GCPs

PPK

GSD

DG4pros

HAPANA

HAPANA

1.5cm

Jedwali la Matokeo 1:

Idadi ya Vitu

urefu wa kipimo (L0)

Urefu wa mfano wa 3D, L1, CW10

Urefu wa mfano wa 3D (L2) M600Pro

DS1, L0-L1

DS2, L0-L2

1

7.21

7.20

7.19

0.010

0.02

 

8.706

8.65

8.70

0.056

0.01

 

10.961

10.90

10.91

0.061

0.05

2

7.01

6.86

6.98

0.150

0.03

3

1.822

1.76

1.79

0.062

0.03

4

10.41

10.37

10.39

0.040

0.02

5

10.718

10.68

10.69

0.038

0.03

6

13.787

13.71

13.76

0.077

0.03

7

11.404

11.38

11.38

0.024

0.02

 

12.147

12.12

12.12

0.027

0.03

8

7.526

7.49

7.50

0.036

0.03

 

13.797

13.77

13.77

0.027

0.03

9

10.374

10.35

10.33

0.024

0.04

10

2.109

2.09

2.02

0.019

0.09

 

4.281

4.19

4.20

0.091

0.08

11

14.675

14.64

14.65

0.035

0.03

 

8.6

8.57

8.57

0.030

0.03

12

13.394

13.38

13.35

0.014

0.04

13

12.94

12.91

12.92

0.030

0.02

14

7.19

7.20

7.17

-0.010

0.02

15

13.371

13.38

13.35

-0.009

0.02

 

6.435

6.43

6.41

0.005

0.02

16

3.742

3.70

3.70

0.042

0.04

17

6.022

5.99

5.99

0.032

0.03

18

3.937

3.94

3.89

-0.003

0.05

19

8.12

8.12

8.08

0.000

0.04

 

14.411

14.37

14.36

0.041

0.05

20

6.077

6.04

6.06

0.037

0.02

21

13.696

13.65

13.65

0.046

0.05

RMSE: DS1 = 0.0356m, DS2 = 0.342m

Hali 2

Kamera ya Oblique

GCPs

PPK

GSD

DG4pros

NDIYO

HAPANA

1.5cm

 

Jedwali la Matokeo 2:

Idadi ya Vitu

urefu wa kipimo (L0)

Urefu wa mfano wa 3D, L1, CW10

Urefu wa mfano wa 3D (L2) M600Pro

DS1, L0-L1

DS2, L0-L2

1

7.21

7.21

7.21

0

0.00

 

8.706

8.68

8.70

0.026

0.01

 

10.961

10.87

10.91

0.091

0.05

2

7.01

6.88

6.98

0.13

0.03

3

1.822

1.76

1.80

0.062

0.02

4

10.41

10.38

10.39

0.03

0.02

5

10.718

10.72

10.70

-0.002

0.02

6

13.787

13.79

13.75

-0.003

0.04

7

11.404

11.38

11.38

0.024

0.02

 

12.147

12.13

12.13

0.017

0.02

8

7.526

7.53

7.49

-0.004

0.04

 

13.797

13.78

13.79

0.017

0.01

9

10.374

10.37

10.35

0.004

0.02

10

2.109

2.11

2.07

-0.001

0.04

 

4.281

4.28

4.21

0.001

0.07

11

14.675

14.67

14.66

0.005

0.02

 

8.6

8.58

8.57

0.02

0.03

12

13.394

13.39

13.35

0.004

0.04

13

12.94

12.9

12.93

0.04

0.01

14

7.19

7.19

7.18

0

0.01

15

13.371

13.37

13.36

0.001

0.01

 

6.435

6.42

6.42

0.015

0.01

16

3.742

3.7

3.71

0.042

0.03

17

6.022

5.98

6.00

0.042

0.02

18

3.937

3.91

3.91

0.027

0.03

19

8.12

8.07

8.10

0.05

0.02

 

14.411

14.38

14.35

0.031

0.06

20

6.077

6.04

6.06

0.037

0.02

21

13.696

13.65

13.67

0.046

0.03

RMSE: DS1 = 0.0259m, DS2 = 0.256m

Hitimisho

Vigezo vya jaribio la 2 ni:

1: Na / Bila GCPs.

2: Drone tofauti ya Vimumunyishaji: drone ya VTOL au drone ya rotor nyingi

Baada ya uchambuzi wa seti mbili za data ya majaribio, tunaweza kupata hitimisho zifuatazo:

 

Wakati kamera ya oblique ni DG4Pros:

(1) Na / Bila kituo cha kudhibiti ardhi (GCP) ikiwa ni VTOL au drone ya rotor nyingi, mtindo wa 3D uliojengwa na kamera ya oblique DG4Pros inaweza kukidhi mahitaji ya kosa la usahihi wa jamaa Ds≤10cm (Kweli cm5cm).

(2) Wakati aina ya drone ya kubeba ni tofauti moja, usahihi wa jamaa wa modeli ya 3D na rotor nyingi ni bora kuliko ile ya VTOL, lakini tofauti sio kubwa sana.